Case Study 26

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai

This man was Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai (12 June 1760 – 25 August 1797). He was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, politician, and diplomat. During the French Revolution he was a Girondist, half of the Legislative Assembly opposed to the Montagnards. As a writer and activist he had promoted the ideals of the Enlightenment; after the success of the US Revolution everyone did. He championed a more moderate approach than Robespierre and Marat. He lobbied for a constitutional monarchy and to spare King Louis XVI’s life. It is believed by some historians he helped destroy his own Girondist movement through the incessant use of libelous writings and statements against the Montagnards. After the Thermidorian Reaction resulted in the death or Robespierre and Marat, he was so threatened by the people of Paris he left. He received an appointment in Naples but died before taking the post.

Karl Marx

This is Karl Heinrich Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) the German economist who made Socialism and Communism a thing. He wrote extensively against Capitalism and Free Enterprise, believing a centralized government run by a single party should control all material wealth. He believed this could only be achieved through violent revolution, purges and forced re-education of the masses. Although descended from Jews he has been criticized as having been an anti Semite and racist. [1] [2] He met Friedrich Engels in Paris in 1944. They where lifetime friends. Marx spent his latter years in London from 1850 until his death in 1883.

Friedrich Fromm

This man is Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm (8 October 1888 – 12 March 1945). Fromm fought for the German Army in World War I and was appointed as Commander of the Replacement Army by Hitler. His job during World War II was to recruit and train men for the ranks of the German Army. He also commanded all the troops in Germany itself and was in charge of supplies and weapons manufacturing, mostly accomplished with slave labor from the concentration camps.

The July 20 plotters (bombing of Hitler’s headquarters) were members of his staff; Claus von Stauffenberg being his executive officer. He had decided to keep quiet about the affair in exchange for a leadership position in the new government. When the plot failed he had his men arrested and, against orders to take them alive, immediately executed so as not to be implicated by their potential testimony. He himself was executed almost a year later on the 12th of March 1945 for failing to prevent the attempt.


FOOTNOTES

[1] “What is the worldly religion of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly God? Money. … Money is the jealous god of Israel, in face of which no other god may exist. Money degrades all the gods of man—and turns them into commodities. … The bill of exchange is the real god of the Jew. His god is only an illusory bill of exchange. … The chimerical nationality of the Jew is the nationality of the merchant, of the man of money in general.” Karl Marx, “On the Jewish Question,” 1844

[2]“Without slavery, North America, the most progressive of countries, would be transformed into a patriarchal country. Wipe out North America from the map of the world and you will have anarchy— the complete decay of modern commerce and civilization. Abolish slavery and you will have wiped America off the map of nations.” Karl Marx, “The Poverty of Philosophy,” 1847